published Voluntary standards and FPIC: Insights for improving implementation,”a report to support sustainability standards systems in improving the effectiveness of implementing FPIC (Free, Prior and Informed Consent).

The report references past findings and notes: “MacInnes et al (2017) consider IRMA to be the most promising of extractive industry multi-stakeholder initiatives involving Indigenous peoples. IRMA recognized early on the importance for indigenous peoples to be directly represented as a key stakeholder in negotiations, rather than a subgroup of NGOs, and the multi-stakeholder approach to the development of the standard has helped in addressing issues such as FPIC.”