published “Just Minerals,” a report focused on safeguarding community rights, sacred places, and public lands from the push for mining expansion.

In their findings, the authors note the importance of market pressure for incentivizing more responsible mining, noting: “Even with effective regulation, mineral sourcing is most responsible when pressure comes from mineral purchasers who see value in better environmental and social governance (ESG). Market pressure has driven a proliferation of voluntary certification programs of varying efficacy for nearly each link in mineral supply chains. For industrial-scale mining, the Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance (IRMA) sits at the forefront of generating this market value.”